How Far Along Are We In Finding A Vaccine For COVID-19?

How Far Along Are We In Finding A Vaccine For COVID-19?

The WHO declared COVID-19 as global pandemic on March 11, 2020. As of June 12, 7,609,730 are reportedly infected with the virus. The availability of a safe and effective vaccine for COVID-19 is indispensable to the control of the pandemic. The vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. Over 120 vaccines have been proposed across the world for COVID-19 prevention.

At the same time, there are many challenges and much efforts are needed to find out an effective vaccine and then making it on a huge scale to provide it to the billions of people who are in desolation due to this deadly pandemic .” It is essential that we evaluate as many vaccines as possible as we cannot predict how many will turn out to be viable”, said WHO.

WHO Solidarity Trial, Accelerating a Safe and Effective COVID-19 Vaccine

This is an unprecedented and extraordinary research undertaking. WHO is putting in tremendous efforts to establish communication and collaboration across the research community. The 4 critical elements of WHO global R&D efforts are,

  1. Harnessing a broad global coalition to develop and evaluate candidate vaccines as quickly and safely as possible
  2. Mapping candidate vaccines and their progress across the world
  3. Defining the desired characteristics of safe and effective vaccines to combat the pandemic.
  4. Coordinating clinical trials across the world – giving humanity the best chance of safe and effective vaccines for all

Draft Landscape of COVID-19 Candidate Vaccines

WHO shared the draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines on 15th May 2020. In which 8 candidate vaccines in clinical evaluation and 110 candidate vaccines for preclinical evaluation were enlisted. In this draft WHO  mentioned the target virus SARS-CoV2, Current stage of clinical evaluation/regulatory status of vaccine, developing company and a platform like DNA, RNA, attenuated virus or protein along with other non-corona viruses for whom those platforms are already used. This draft is very comprehensive and gives an idea about how close we are in finding a vaccine for COVID-19.

Efforts in Various Countries to Develop a COVID-19 Vaccine

  • Recently, US immunotherapy company Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc. said its experimental vaccine to prevent coronavirus infection was shown to produce protective antibodies and immune system responses in mice and guinea pigs. That vaccine and INO-4800 are made using newer technology that focuses on specific genes on the outer “spike” portion of the virus. Another vaccine is mRNA-1273 developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Moderna, Inc.
  • As of March 2020, in China 2019-nCoV vaccines one that entered phase I clinical trials is named as Ad5-nCoV developed by the Chinese Institute of Biotechnology of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences and Tianjin Cansino Biotechnology Inc.
  • Although the Oxford vaccine, called “ChAdOx1 nCoV-19,” has not yet been proven to protect against COVID-19 infection and there are reports of it being so not effective, Serum Institute in India, decided to start manufacturing after it showed promise in the pre-clinical phase and progressed to human trials.
  • In Germany too, many companies are busy in developing an effective vaccine.
  • In the Philippines and many other countries and pharmaceutical companies are in a race to develop a vaccine.
  • Meanwhile, in Pakistan, the Special Assistant to Prime Minister (SAPM) on Health, Zafar Mirza on Saturday clarified that there is currently no coronavirus vaccine in Pakistan and neither is there any work ongoing for its development. But offers were made by Chinese and Japanese pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials for the vaccine. The government is cogitating on these offers.

Of all, Moderna recently shared the outcome of its human trial which indicated that eight volunteers — four each from the 25-microgram dose and 100-microgram dose arms — developed neutralizing antibodies at levels almost same as that developed by patients who recovered from coronavirus but since the company disclosed information about only 8 out of 45 subjects, the scientists raised the question and they said the company has yet to release significant data to support its claim that its drug is effective, furthermore the age group of subjects is also an important factor to look into before going to any conclusion.


Although the rapid development of a vaccine is underway, there are still many challenges including,

  1. influence of antigenic variation (mutations in the virus genome may affect the efficacy of vaccine)
  2. the protective immune response of the host
  3. the manufacturing process of the new vaccine on such a large scale
  4. Will the vaccine be made available to all?
  5. Efficacy of vaccine in people of different geographical distribution
  6. Making an effective vaccine for the elderly because the aged immune system does not respond well to the immunization
  7. Prioritizing who would get inoculated first as there will be initially limited supply
  8. World politics and diplomacy may effect vaccine distribution

Although it is unanimous that development of an effective vaccine is urgent, challenges exist in both research and development as well as policies aiming to establish preparatory steps in the development and use of a vaccine against Corona Virus.

The world will need 7 billion vaccine doses to end COVID-19 pandemic.

Bill Gates

Would the Vaccine be Made Available to All?

WHO and UNO aim at making the COVID-19 vaccine available to all. The Chinese Government has already made it clear that if they succeed in making a vaccine, it will be made available to all. But still there is fear and also indications that COVID-19 vaccine may be used for political goals by some nations. USA and China are both working hard to find a vaccine. It appears that China wants to get there first. It sees the race as a matter of national pride. At the same time, US president declared that “You really could say that nobody’s seen anything like we’re doing, whether it’s ventilators or testing. Nobody’s seen anything like we’re doing now within our country since the World War-II.” In their quest for power, these two countries may end up changing the world’s political affairs and deciding who would get the vaccine first.

As per history, during the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak, it took about 20 months for a vaccine to be ready for testing in people. But now new developments have been made in this field so we can hope for the rapid development of a vaccine.
It has been predicted that a Vaccine may be available till the end of 2020 by US president but according to Dale Fisher, chair of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network., a vaccine for Covid-19 will not be ready until the end of next year, Fisher also said President Donald Trump’s comments that he was confident a coronavirus vaccine would be developed by the end of 2020 — were “a bit premature.”

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Saira Naz

Post by: Saira Naz

Saira is a third year student at King Edward Medical University, Lahore. She has interests in research and content writing.

4,654 thoughts on “How Far Along Are We In Finding A Vaccine For COVID-19?

  1. Typically the massage therapist begins the massage while using normal relaxing Swedish massage after which starts to massage the sufferer
    with the heated stones. If there is the required time, stay at the sauna, spa or steam bath facility for the day spa.
    Massage recliner units are wonderful means to deviate coming from a sedentary lifestyle.

  2. Create websites will valuable information that nobody else will give away.
    This means how the man does not want or have to go to sleep after sex.
    Research has demonstrated that nurturing touch enhances
    the discharge of oxytocin, a hormone that can cause a sense nurturing and sensation of

  3. During the time of her marriage, Marilyn Monroe was working
    as a model. Erotic artwork and pictures are not to
    be posted, even if it is related to an NSFW project someone is working
    for, as none of our channels are marked NSFW. If someone seems to be
    genuinely unaware of their behavior being inappropriate, then you can try to
    gently temper them down (such as people using “loli” without realising the connotations aren’t
    appropriate). Meet quality singles in your area or worldwide looking
    for dating, friends, get laid, marriage, one night stand, or just someone to chat or hang out with.
    They married without musings out and out. The only thing that
    is left to consider is whether or not you actually want to try it out.
    Try not to do it again in future, alright? I remember my pants and jeans were down to the top of my knees.

  4. It’s a pity you don’t have a donate button! I’d most certainly donate
    to this brilliant blog! I suppose for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS
    feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and
    will share this site with my Facebook group. Talk

  5. Frankland shows the judge a receipt for an HP desktop computer purchased
    at Best Buy on Nov. 29, 2016. He says the receipt matches the make/model of the desktop in question here.

    The initial report of uploaded child porn came in Nov. 8.


  6. I’ve been browsing online more than three hours today,
    yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me.
    In my view, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as
    you did, the net will be much more useful
    than ever before.

  7. I am really enjoying the theme/design of your
    site. Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility issues?

    A couple of my blog audience have complained
    about my blog not working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox.
    Do you have any solutions to help fix this issue?

  8. Fifty-five per cent of those profiled were previously unknown to law enforcement and had no prior criminal record.
    One thing this paper highlights is live-streaming of child sexual abuse leaves very ­little
    online trace or record and how technology is enabling its proliferation, making it increasingly difficult for law enforcement to combat this devastating crime,’ he said.
    They were both sending messages to Teddy without the other one knowing.
    She was sending texts to Teddy as well. Just days before Megan and footballer Chelcee parted ways,
    after over a month of dating, tattooed beauty Teddy
    tweeted: ‘I’ve got a girl and her girlfriend in my DMs but neither of
    them know the other is doing it. After Teddy tweeted about the love triangle, Demi sent her post to Megan to stir the pot between her and Chelcee.
    After arranging an OxyContin sale on WeChat, the vendor sent a special link for
    a product listing on Xianyu for “flowers” that cost the agreed price: 1,200
    yuan for 10 boxes of 10mg OxyContin pills.

  9. Why? Because they are self-confident, they know what
    they are doing, and yes, secretly you know they are good in bed – check out BongaCams free live sex chat to see for
    yourself. If you want to experience one of the best sex cams of your life, you’re going
    to want to check out her live cam show. No one beats mature women in the game of seduction and sex.
    One thing is sure this site is made for those who love sex
    so want to find sex partners and who want to make friends for life.

    Especially single guys. Especially single guys in their twenties
    who have two roommates. Have you ever heard about a single person in this world that ever made it to met a woman on those dating sites?

    Dear Friend: You should raise your concerns directly to the woman at the heart of this
    – not with her parents, or other people. Follow carefully their live sex video feed as
    they touch themselves so you can learn how to make a real
    woman come – BongaCams hot MILFs love playing nude
    sex-ed teachers. Sexy milfs and cougars know how to work
    any sex toy, dick, or hand to get just about any guy’s dick throbbing.

  10. If you know your partner well enough to be able to choose something you know he or
    she will absolutely love, then success is guaranteed, but you need to pay attention, because you will have a lot of options to
    choose from when it comes to both men and women sex toys.
    Under these circumstances, if you keep in mind these suggestions,
    you use the massagestavar gently at first and you communicate really well with your
    partner, then this experience couldn’t be any other way than amazing for
    both of you. For the best experience, there’s only one way to go
    and that’s Xtreme. Since the Internet is so generous and has brought many services
    and products to the comfort of our homes or offices,
    the best thing you can do is go online and search for
    a sex shop. So the Fantasy World Escorts find very best way how could help them
    in terms of that matter of difficulty. And when one begins to look
    older, the way they feel is not too far behind to follow.

  11. I am really enjoying the theme/design of your
    blog. Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility issues?
    A number of my blog audience have complained about my website not working correctly
    in Explorer but looks great in Chrome. Do you
    have any recommendations to help fix this problem?

    Feel free to surf to my blog Mega Millions Megaply

  12. Leftists ideology is materialistics & sex oriented.
    It’s male members are Tharki.
    Females are porn star. For money they can go to any level.
    It’s their profession. Where from free gosht, wine, chakhna will come?
    all jugad from FF, ISI, CIA
    Is it @DeShobhaa @ashutosh83B crab

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *